Content & Structure of the book

The Content & Structure

The Content and Structure of the Hungarian book:  Ki szereti a zsidókat? A magyar filoszemitizmus”  / Who likes the Jews? The Hungarian Philosemitism (Endre MOZES et al., Noran Libro, Budapest 2014,  368 pp)    can be best  reviewed through this detailed Table of Content.  There are a few changes-revisions in it already, towards the Revised English Edition (ed. E. Mozes) of the book, under preparation.  Here come

First, the Basic Structure of the book:

Part I:    INTRODUCTION: OPENING THESES TO THE BOOK
Part II:   HUNGARIAN PHILOSEMITISM IN THE PAST

            Chapter 1: Episodes of Philosemitism in Hungary’s history
Chapter 2: Philosemitism in Hungarian classical literature
Chapter 3: Saving Jewish lives during the Holocaust
Part III:  THE HUNGARIAN PHILOSEMITISM’S PRESENT & FUTURE –  Contemporary writings 

and then the detailed Table of Contents, with added Abstracts for most articles:

Detailed Table of Contents:


    Part I:    INTRODUCTION: OPENING THESES TO THE BOOK

Endre (Andre) MOZES: Why do we speak about the Hungarian philosemitism? –         (full translation elsewhere)     

Endre  MOZES: What is it, philosemitism, anyway? –(full translation elsewhere) –

Acknowledgements

 

        Part II:   HUNGARIAN PHILOSEMITISM IN THE PAST


Chapter 1: Episodes of Philosemitism in Hungary’s history

Endre MOZES: Editor’s Opening thesis to the ’Episodes of Philosemitism in Hungary’s history’

Abstract: There is no continuous written history of Philosemitism, or good co-existence between Jews and non-Jews, in Hungary. However, we found surprisingly numerous reliable historic documents of “normal” life together, examples of good and mutually useful cooperation, and we believe that, beside Holocaust remembrance, or the coping with painful historic lessons and documenting difficult times, coexistence is also an important part of the realistic history of Jews in Hungary, which is not sufficiently documented. This Chapter is selected and edited to give a taste of all these

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Dr. Samuel KOHN: History of the Jews in Hungary – From the earliest times until Mohács – Excerpts

  • The Jews during Bela the 4th – Jews during the reign of King Matthias Hunyadi

Samuel Kohn was a leading historian in Hungary in the middle of the 19th century to use modern methods. His book reflects the Hungarian patriotism of Jews of his time, when legal and social emancipation made fast progress

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István BIBÓ: Jewish Question in Hungary after 1944 – Excerpts

  • The Hungarian society and the persecution of Jews – the moral bankruptcy of Hungarian society – the components of anti-Semitism and of the fight against anti-Semitism – the persecution of Jews and the problem of accountability: lack of measures and limits and lack of national responsibility

Bibó died decades ago, but he is considered until today the most profound social historian of the decades before and the years after the Holocaust in Hungary. He relentlessly analyses also, why Hungarian national accountability remained largely unexplored and unsolved
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János GYURGYÁK: The Jewish Question in Hungary – Excerpts

  • Foreword – The two Tisza-s (father and son, Prime Ministers before and after the turn of the century), and the mercantilists – the Social Democrats and the Jewish Question at the turn of the century – the Jewish Question in 1945

Gyurgyak’s book focuses on the history of ideas concerning Jews in Hungary, in politics, in publications, and among the public itself. His unbiased monograph traces the antisemitic, philosemitic and other views through the researcher’s eyes. The two Tisza Prime Ministers we selected represent an enlightened era towards Jews.

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KOMORÓCZY, Géza: The History of the Jews in Hungary. I. – From the Middle Ages until 1849 – Selected Excerpts from the scope of Philosemitism

  • Medieval Christian-Jewish coexistence – Khazars, Jews, Hungarians – King IV. Béla: rights to all the Jews – King Matthias dodged a Jewish treasurer – fairs, markets – Tolerance regulations – the names of the Jews – The idea of ​​emancipation – peddlers and wholesalers – Industry and industrialists – “We are Hungarians” – Jews in the 1848/49 year war of independence

Géza Komoróczy’s work is undoubtedly the most significant on the subject. From its 2,300 pages and 13,000 references we selected philosemitic episodes – with the author’s consent – they surprise us and definitely soften the borders of our negative stereotypes

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KOMORÓCZY, Géza: The History of the Jews in Hungary. II – Since 1849 up to the present – Selected excerpts from the scope of Philosemitism

  • The first Jewish representative in Parliament – Kossuth’s “Jewish issues” after Tiszaeszlár – the process of emancipation, full acceptance of Judaism – Millennium – Jews during World War I.

Géza Komoróczy – see above. Amidst the process of full emancipation after 1867, Tiszaeszlár was a medieval type blood-libel in the last quarter of the 19th century – the only one for centuries! – which became a political antisemitic movement, but finally the active philosemites won full emancipation for all Jews in what was then Hungary; that is, for today’s Slovakia, Romanian Transylvania, Serbian Vojvodina, and Ukrainian Pod-Karpatsko too. Unfortunately this golden age ended with World War One.

 

Chapter 2: Philosemitism in Hungarian classical literature

EDITOR’s Opening thesis to the ’Philosemitism in Hungarian classical literature’ Chapter

Abstract: Looking for materials and examples of human attitude towards the Jews in classic Hungarian literature, we collected examples of understanding their sufferings, and also examples of living together with humor and in joy, sayings that life is richer together. It turned out that there had been many episodes of sincere Philosemitism. Most great Hungarian poets, writers, and thinkers had something good to say about it, while antisemites were relatively few, and none among the most prominent writers. Some of the poets quoted, though, held nationalistic and even antisemitic views before WWII, but when they understood what was happening, they changed their views. Here they are, in a more or less chronologic order

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King St. STEPHAN’s admonition – Acceptance of and care for Guests

This is the ethos of King St. Stephan, István the 1st, the first Christian King of Hungary, from 1001, concerning the acceptance of newcomers and strangers, the ”Others”, those speaking other languages.

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JÓKAI, Mór: I and the Jews

A heartening story by Jókai – the most popular Hungarian novelist ever ***.

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TÁNCSICS, Mihály: The “Jewish affair ‘

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ARANY, János: The Eternal Jew (poem)

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VAJDA, János: Credo  (poem)

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SZÉCHENYI, Béla: Jewish nation, Rothschild family

This less prominent member of the Széchenyi-s, the glorious Hungarian aristocrat family, starts with contemptuous views about Jews, and then – like Balaam the biblical prophet who came to curse Israel and couldn’t help blessing it – every fact he says about Jews is positive and he sets them as examples to follow

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EÖTVÖS, Károly: A great trial which is going on for thousands of years and is not over yet – Foreword

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ADY, Endre: The stamped army (stigmatized marching crowd) – (poem) ???

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ADY, Endre: A Jew’s pipe

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JÓZSEF, Attila: Shmah Jisróel  (poem)

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KOSZTOLÁNYI. Dezső: The exodus of Jews  (poem)

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MÓRICZ, Zsigmond: Confession about Hungarian Jewry ???

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Kassák, Lajos: Jewish tragedy   (poem)                                               OUT in the English edition ???

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PILINSZKY, Janos: …     …                                                                    IN in the English edition!!!

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ILLYÉS, Gyula: Stamps of shame   (poem).

TERSÁNSZKY, Józsi Jenő: The Will                                          OUT in the English edition ???

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TERSÁNSZKY, Józsi Jenő: The Anti-Semite

Abstract: This anecdote tells  the story of two Jewish boys in class, a poor and a rich one, who are a “normal” part of the class, except that they are irreconcilably at odds –  they don’t speak to each other, and Igel, the only Jew-hater in class can’t be happier with this. How comes the grotesque and heartwarming happy-end?
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TÖMÖRKÉNY, István: Wine picking

Two old orthodox Jews are driving their poor horse and carriage around, looking for a vineyard where they would be allowed to vintage and make their own wine according to the strict kosher ritual rules. At the end a religious Christian peasant helps them to do that and then feels good about his daily good deed done

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THURY, Zoltán: The mill of the Rosen brothers

Abstract: Two rich and diligent old Jewish brothers build a modern mill, which gives work and bread to the village, so the peasants abandon the broken-down baron’s barren fields and flock to the mill. And now the Jewish boss employs the talented but idle and frivolous young baron, to make a man of him…

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Chapter 3: Saving Jewish lives during the Holocaust

Endre MOZES: Editor’s Opening theses to ’Saving Jewish lives during the Holocaust’

Abstract: There are many more well-documented efforts of saving Jewish lives than we normally know, while it is clear that due to the clandestine nature of rescues only the tip of the iceberg is documented. And even about these we don’t speak enough, although it would improve our quality of life on both sides, and the understanding of each other. Thoughts and doubts are raised and discussed, how this situation could be improved…

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LIST of Hungarian Rescuers of Jews, awarded the title “Righteous gentiles”, aka “Righteous Among the Nations”, by Yad Vashem Institute (Jerusalem)

A full list of Hungarian Rescuers of Jews, those awarded the title “Righteous Among the Nations” by Yad Vashem, is given here, published the first time in correct Hungarian language and orthography.  The correct names and data were reconstructed from the original files in the Yad Vashem archive.

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KOMORÓCZY, Géza: A History of the Jews in Hungary II. – Excerpts, extracts of the ’Rescuers of Jews’ Chapter

  • The deportation of rural Jews – Forced labor on the frontline, Hungarian officers’ rescue missions – Governor’s exemptions – the actual help of Christian churches – the Zionist movement’s rescue actions – foreign representations’ rescue missions – Raoul Wallenberg

Géza Komoróczy’s work is undoubtedly the most significant on this subject in Hungary.

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MARKOVITS, Mária: The forest of the righteous. A quest of the meaning of remembrance

A walk in the Yad VaShem Holocaust Memorial Institute in Jerusalem, factual and emotional in the same time, just as it has to be

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MÓZES, Endre: Questions about the Jewish forced laborers in WWII, their life and death, their numbers and the number of survivors

  • Overview – Figures – Analysis and estimates – Excerpts of Schwarcz Jeráchmiél’s (Uncle Bela’s) labor camp diary – Attempted Conclusions

This is a pioneering revision of the widespread almost exclusively negative accounts of Jewish forced labor during WWII. Through numerical analyses and witness accounts and a personal war diary published here for the first time, Mozes argues that, with all the tragic and sometimes brutal losses of lives, the Jewish forced labor force on the war front was still the largest survival source for the Hungarian country-side’s Jewry – otherwise totally annihilated. The Jewish forced laborers’ low (at or below 50%) survival rate is tragic, yet the gains are also clear: and these lives could not have been saved without the historic cohabitation, and without the more human behavior of many Hungarian soldiers and officers, than we know from the widespread tragic examples.           – CCC


Original witness writings:

Dr. István VERZÁR: High school Abitur (leaving certificate) is required

Ede SALAMON: Ágnes

The wood transporter

András DAUER: The 40’s Party

A survivor’s original witness writing, better than any Hollywood thriller. Forty young Jewish military labor service escapees’ courage and resourcefulness meet with helpful Hungarian officers, who also take huge risks

 

 

Part III:  THE HUNGARIAN PHILOSEMITISM’S PRESENT & FUTURE –  Contemporary writings

MOZES, Endre: Editor’s Opening thesis to PartIII, Contemporary writings

For the contemporary writings we did not have one guiding thesis, we looked for maximum diversity. We only reply here to the FAQuestion, how did we select from the endless choice of potential authors and subjects? One observation comes quite naturally all along, as if by itself: life in Hungary has been unseparably and intriguingly intertwined with the life of its Jewish minority,  both physically and even more in everything less visible, like society, culture, spirit, humor and more

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BOLLOBÁS, Enikő: Opening doors and building bridges – The heritage of Rabbi Alexander Sándor Scheiber and my own father

An enchanting story by Enikő Bollobás, professor of American literature in Budapest, about her lifelong friendship with Rabbi Sándor Scheiber, director of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest —the only one in Europe East of Paris – and also a renowned scholar of Hungarian literature. Rabbi Scheiber single-handedly revived Jewish life in Hungary during the communist years, through his great knowledge and his unique charm and openness, towards  young people, non-Jews and all

 

CSÁNYI, Dora: The dinner – How many identities do we have?

A young publisher of children’s books has some dim and never discussed Jewish memories from her past, when questions of her children and others force her to face them. But why shouldn’t one have several identities? We all do!

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CSÁNYI, Vilmos: Things like that only happen in Spain

Vilmos Csányi is a popular scientist, novelist, ethologist, and thinker, with enormous knowledge and a special sense of humor. This piece is taken and adjusted for us from his novel about Saint Therese of Aquila, and in this part a proud Spanish noble family reveals that there were several Jewish influxes in the family’s past, which should remain carefully hidden from the eyes of the inquisition.  Yes, things like that happen only in Spain, indeed

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Dr. CZEIZEL, Endre: About Hungarian Nobel Laureates’ origin, with lessons

  • Possible genetic explanations – The socio-cultural impact

Dr. Endre Czeizel was the most popular geneticist in Hungary, a leader in explaining medical science to the general public. His analysis shows how high the Jewish “gen” ratio is in Nobel Laureates of Hungarian origin (11/16=70%). But genes definitely are NOT the explanation, Hungarians should learn the Jewish learning and family habits from their Jewish compatriots, he says. Czeizel wrote this article while in hospital for chemotherapy, and shortly after the publication of the book passed away …    – CCC

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CZÉKMÁN, Balázs: Guest in Israel: Five Months contradiction –
Israel and Hungarian Jews in Israel with a Hungarian scholar’s eyes

Wide-eyed observations about every little thing, growing step by step to important lessons, like how a community of the most diverse individuals like in Israel can survive and flourish together, instead of destroying itself from within

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Dr. Emil FEUERSTEIN/Elza KÁDÁR: The friendship of Petőfi and Rózsavölgyi Mark

  • Petőfi Sándor: To Rózsavölgyi’s death (poem)

Based on a piece from Dr Feuerstein’s grand encyclopedia of prominent Hungarian Jewish personalities, Elza highlights the friendship of the young genius poet Sándor Petőfi and the old Jewish violin virtuoso Mark Rózsavölgyi, who devoted himself to promote Hungarian music in Western Europe instead of living as a celebrity of Western music

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János GADÓ:   The Dangers of Philosemitism

A veteran journalist in the Jewish press in Hungary, Gadó fears the dangers of Philosemitism that is, how lasting and reliable can it be?                      – C

 

HERNÁDI, Miklós: Budapest gags.

Miklós Hernádi is a senior sociologist. From his book: Jewish Writers and Artists in the Era of Hungarian Progression, 1860-1945, we selected these details, illustrating that the typical Budapest jokes and gags born in the literary cafes and elsewhere, were joint products of  Hungarian non-Jews and Jews

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KARÁDY, Viktor: Gentle emotions and choosing common destiny in Hungarian Jewish-Christian mixed marriages

Viktor Karády is a social historian, with decades of academic activity in Paris behind him, a master of statistical analyses. The statistics of mixed marriages in Hungary in the 20th century is presented on a historic and also romantic background.       –CCC

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KOCSIS, Csaba: The place where the sky is still blue

Hungarian Jewish memories from Berettyóujfalu

Kocsis Csaba is a non-Jewish poet, local historian and social worker for minorities; no wonder that these memories about Jewish life there once are rich in data and full of most beautiful poetry – we should dare more this combination. One thousand Jews were once part of a fairy tale in Berettyóujfalu, none here today

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KONRÁD, György: Jewish-Hungarian barter and reckoning

György Konrád, the doyen of Jewish writers in Hungary, is an internationally acknowledged cultural icon; among others served as President of The German Academy of Arts for years. His constant pain of the Holocaust accompanies almost all his oeuvre; the present writing is, however, a combination of sections selected from several books of him, edited, with his consent, to give a positive recipe for good coexistence: mutually useful exchange of quality products and values, mutual honest reckoning and responsibility.         – CCC

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KOVÁCS, András: Who likes the Jews? The Hungarian public opinion and philo

Professor András Kovács, national prize winning international expert of Antisemitism and Philosemitism, presents his survey of Anti- and philosemitic inclinations of different groups in Hungary, also in post-Communist Hungary; mostly according to the traditional, originally German definitions of Philosemitism (none of them very promising)        – C

 

KOVÁCS, Ferenc: Mihály Vörösmarty’s Jewish Affairs and Petőfi’s diary

An essay about an interesting and less known article and similar diary section of two of the greatest Hungarian poets

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MIHÁLYI, Géza: My philosemitism

Mihályi, a leading design engineer of Budapest city, gives a personal account how he became a philosemite, a friend with Jews, and how it enriched his life in every field. To become a philosemite is a personal choice, he says                  – C

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MÓZES, Endre: One-minute sketches about Hungarian Philosemitism

These 13 one-minute or even shorter sketches of Mozes speak in a brief ’n funny way about his most personal – and most serious – questions concerning Jewish non-Jewish encounters, from a joke about the guy friends in the pub call ’The Philosemite’, to the tense contradictions about the term ”The Chosen People”                       – CCC

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MÓZES, Endre: Philosemitism in England, from Cromwell to Churchill – Thoughts after the recension by Edward Alexander on Gertrude Himmelfarb’s book: The People of The Book

The article’s lead claims, “Churchill was a philosemite, who supported Zionism, with a lot of respect to the Bible, without being very religious, and he was convinced that Disraeli was right saying that The Lord treats nations as they treat their Jews”. The details in the article are from Himmelfarb’s book and Alexander’s very thoughtful review.  But Mozes goes further and raises the question, whether without Cromwell’s philosemitism (he believed in the talent of Jews and in 1656 invited them, 366 years after their expulsion, back to England) could England have become the world’s leading economic power within decades? Whether without Churchill’s strong faith in Jewish values could he lead England to become the pivot of the anti-Nazi coalition?         – CCC

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MÜLLER, Peter Siamese: What is your idea of ​​good anti-Semitism? (Or of good philo – which is the same)

Peter Müller Siamese is a successful poet, pop-musician, opera director and founder of an avant-garde theatre for retarded people. In his typical enfant-terrible style he reveals Anti-Semitism’s irrationality and offers surprising rules how to be OK about Jews, without giving up the right to dislike them                                                        –  CCC

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NAGY, Péter Tibor: Students ready to marry Jews – A materialization of the question, who likes the Jews?

NPT, a Budapest university professor, presents a scientific survey of the readiness of university students to marry Jews, as per their ethnic group, religion, socio-economic situation. The results of the groups are different, but not very much

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SCHWEITZER, József: Recommendation

(the ex-Chief Rabbi of Hungary, see on the book’s cover): „ … This book is a right step towards the revival of a serene Christian-Jewish dialogue…   I find its continuation most desirable…”

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TÓTH, István: A walk in Ferencváros
–   Letter of an old history teacher, to his ex-student 45 years ago, living now in Israel

The author in his nineties does his everyday health walk in his famous neighborhood – the football fans of which are called antisemitic sometimes – and has on every corner something to tell, with warmth, firm knowledge and a subtle charming humor,  about a Jewish memory or a lifesaving effort                      C

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TÓTH, Krisztina:  Jewish. Everyone is Jewish

  • If it could be said as you feel – The story of the shoulder – Wedding – Örkény-shadow play, Achashverosh-Xerxes – Hair

Krisztina Tóth is a popular young poet and writer. She is very sensitive to human suffering and in these excerpts from her internationally successful romans her Jewish heroes are poor and physically or mentally handicapped people. In her personal answer she supports but isn’t too optimistic about the chances of Philosemitism in Hungary…

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VÁRSZEGI, Asztrik: Recommendation
(Bishop, First Abbot of the Pannonhalma Closter, see on the book’s cover)

„…This book may convey to many people the message that, if we deal more with the benevolent, friendly, useful and successful aspects of our life together, this may be an effective way to counter Antisemitism…”                                                                      – C

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VÉGEL, László: Jews and minorities

Végel is an outstanding Hungarian writer from Vojvodina, Serbia’s Hungarian region. His diary pages give us an insight to the similarities between Antisemitism and persecution of other minorities, in the conflicts-ridden Balkan and anywhere                                  – CCC

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VEKERDY, ​​Tamás: Together: Non-Jewish and Jewish, Slovakian, Swabian and other Hungarians

Vekerdy is a writer, playwright, theatre critic, education expert,… a polyhistor if there is any. His sparkling associations about Jews living with non-Jews end with the hint that Magyars would be much poorer without the Khazars,  Avars, Kuns, Turks, Vlachs, Slovaks, Germans, Jews, Armenians etc who became a part of them…              – CCC

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Edited by E. Mozes  mozesey@netvision.net.il

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